Waec May/June 2019 Animal Husbandry & Obj Answers

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Waec May/June 2019 Animal Husbandry & Obj Answers
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    ANIMAL HUSBANDRY OBJ

    1-10 DCBACBCACB
    11-20 DBDBACADAC
    21-30 ADBAADAADC
    31-40 BCBBAACBCA

    ANIMAL HUSBANDRY ESSAY
    1a) i)

    - Bee keeping requires less time, money and infrastructure investments

    -Honey and beeswax can be produced from an area of little agricultural value

    - The Honey bee does not compete for resources with any other agricultural enterprise.

    -Beekeeping can be initiated by individuals or groups

    -The market potential for honey and wax is high


    (1aii)
    (i) Join a local beekeeping association
    (ii) Choose a Site
    (iii) Create a Stand
    (iv) Build a Hive
    (v) Consider your equipment
    (vi) Get Some Bees
    (vii) Review your local by-laws and register your hives
    (vii) Protect yourself
    (viii) Look and learn
    (ix) Keep notes



    1b)

    - Use a hybrid or cross bred female.

    -Satisfy the nutritional requirements of the sow both in pregnancy and lactation.

    -Bring a healthy sow into the farrowing house.

    -Achieve good birth weights.

    -Ensure each pig receives maximum colostrum at birth.

    1bii)
    (i) Feeding
    (ii) Housing
    (iii) Flushing
    (iv) Vaccination
    (v) Breeding


    1c)
    i)For food production e.g milk and meat
    ii)They are used as source of power in the farm.
    iii)They serve as source of hides.
    iv)They serve as source of income to farmers
    v)They provides raw materials for industry.
    vi)Their horns are used for decoration.

    -=-=-=-=-=-=
    5a)
    (i)Coffee brewing machine
    (ii)Coffee bean grinding machine
    (iii)Tea dispenser
    (iv)Bread slicing machine
    (v)Salamander
    (5b)
    (i)Zebu cattle are usually red or grey in colour
    (ii)They are horned
    (iii)They have loose skin
    (iv)They have large ears and have a hump above their
    shoulders.
    (v)This breed is used for its milk, meat and as draft animals
    (5c)
    (i)the regulation of body temperature
    (ii)growth
    (iii)digestion
    (iv)reproduction
    (v)metabolism
    (5d)
    (i)Bloat
    (ii)Grass tetany
    (iii)Hypocalcaemia (milk fever)
    (iv)Ketosis (pregnancy toxaemia)
    (v)Mineral deficiencies, including copper, selenium, cobalt and phosphorus
    =======================


    4a) Artificial pasture refers to an area of land covered with forage grasses and legumes which are deliberately planted by man.


    4b) -extend the growing season of a pasture,
    improve the quality of forage

    - reduce nitrogen fertilizer requirements because of the legume's nitrogen fixation capacities

    - prove more adaptable for a wider range of conditions

    - improve flexibility to survive environmental conditions

    - reduce susceptibility to insect and disease attacks.

    - improve the palatability
    - utilize grass to quicken the curing of hay



    (4ci)
    (i) mixed production
    (ii) intensive farming systems “landless”
    (iii) extensive production system

    (4cii)
    -Mixed production:
    (I) it includes both agriculture and livestock
    (ii)it can be either intensive or extensive.
    (iii)it used for exploitation of both irrigated or non-irrigated land and they are common in some parts of America, Europe and Asia.

    -Intensive farming:
    (i) it is mainly used for livestock.
    (ii)it is used to breed pigs, chickens, laying hens, cattle and even fish
    (iii)they are common in north America, Europe and Asia and in heavy populated areas in general, where the demand for meat and proteins is very high.

    -Extensive farming:
    (i)it is used on large non-cultivated land where animals can graze freely
    (ii)it is use for cattle, to produce meat and milk, sheep and goats.
    (iii)It is more common in Central and South America
    ==========================

    (6a)
    ADVANTAGES:
    (i) Castration reduces male aggression and thereby makes males easier to
    handle.
    (ii) There is a risk of unwanted matings if there are uncastrated males on the farm, other than those required for breeding.
    (iii) Due apparently to traditional butchers' prejudices, castrated male meat is marketed higher than that of uncastrated meats.
    (iv) Performance and conversion rates can be itnpr<>ved by castration.
    (v) It helps in preventing production of unwanted or undesirable offspring

    DISADVANTAGES:
    (i) The cheaper methods of castration; which the farmer can do himself,require a degree of skill. With such methods there is a risk of infection.
    (ii) The alternative, of calling in a veterinary surgeon, adds to costs.
    (c) Castration involves some time.
    -======================

    *2a)*
    (Pick three)
    (1)Separators Dairy Equipment.
    (2)Homogenizer Dairy Equipment.
    (3)Pasteurizers Dairy Equipment.
    (4)Tanks Dairy Equipment


    *(2b)*
    (Steps for Pasteurization of milk)

    (1)Pour the raw milk into the stainless steel pot.

    (2)Slowly heat the milk to 145 degrees Fahrenheit, stirring occasionally

    (3)Hold the temperature at 145 F for exactly 30 minutes.

    (4)Remove the pot of milk from the heat and place it in a sink or large bowl filled with ice water.

    (5)Store pasteurized milk in the refrigerator.



    *(2ci)*
    -Wholesalers

    (1)They purchase product in bulk

    (2)They provide storage facilities

    (3)They provide good transport facilities

    (4)They pass information from retailers to producer and vise versa

    *(2cii)*
    -Retailer

    (1)They make produce readily available to the customers

    (2)They provide jobs for many people

    (3)They pass information from the consumers to the wholesalers

    (4)They give credits to some consumers


    *(2di)*
    (Pick three only)
    -Marketing board
    (1)The board provides an organised and ready market for various agricultural commodities

    (2)it helps to stabilise the prices of farm produce

    (3)The board sometimes provides capital to farmers

    (4)it advises and encourage farmers to adopt modern farming techniques

    (5)it helps to transport the produce of the farmers


    *(2dii)*

    (Pick three only)
    - co-operative society

    (1)They stimulate competition in produce marketing by buying produce in bulk

    (2)They have close contact with producers

    (3)They reduce the inequality of income distribution by selling to members at reduced rate

    (4)They also provide transportation services

    (5)They grant loans to members

    ============================


    3a) Mouth --> egg hatches --> intestines --> larva

    3aii)
    - it's bites can cause severe irritation
    - heavy louse infestation can lead to restlessness
    - Emaciation or loss of weight
    - the sores may create room for pathogens to attack the animal
    - Scratching for the bites results to sores
    - heavy louse infestation can cause death

    3aiii)
    - isolate infected animals
    - Avoid overcrowding of animals
    - maintain good sanitation
    - spray the animal host with insecticides
    - Regular dipping of animals in solutions containing ascaricides

    3aiv)
    - poultry
    - goat
    - dog
    - sheep
    - cattle
    -pig

    3bi)
    - cattle
    - Sheep

    3bii) Protozoa (Eimeria spp)

    3biii)
    - blood stained diarrhoea
    - weakness
    - Emaciation
    - Anaemia

    3biv)
    - change of litter after some time
    - vaccination should be regular
    - maintain good sanitary measures
    - apply coccidiastat to their drinking water
    ==================================

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