Waec May/june 2015 Government 2 (Essay and Obj Answers)

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Waec May/june 2015 Government 2 (Essay and Obj Answers)
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    (1a) Constitutionalism is based on the belief that the powers of the various organs of government should be defined and regulated by the constitution so that those who govern the society do so without denying or violating human dignity.

    (1b) (i) Democratic system
    (ii) Separation of powers
    (iii) enlightened public opinion
    (iv) a responsible opposition

    (7a) (i) Iwe Ihorin, founded in 1859 by African missionaries in Abeokuta, Nigeria
    (ii) Lagos Daily News in 1925,
    (iii) West African Pilot in 1937

    (7b) (i) Rebellions Against Colonial Rule Before the Second World War
    (ii) The fight against colonialism and imperialism in Africa
    (iii) Struggles for National Liberation
    (iv) Nationalism and Independence

    (8.) (i) The party won regional power in Western Nigeria while Nigeria was still under British colonial rule
    (ii) It took part in the national elections on the eve of Nigerian independence in 1960 but was able to garner little support outside the Western Region and the Nigerian federal capital city of Lagos.

    (iii) It also had appeal in the later South-South and Middle Belt regions of the country.
    (iv) The party was regarded in some establishment circles as supporting communism, and was viewed with suspicion by the West, even though the leadership denied this claim.

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    (9ai) The military are forces authorized to use deadly force, and weapons, to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens. The task of the military is usually defined as defense of the state and its citizens, and the prosecution of war against another state.

    (9aii) Military coup d'etat is the sudden and illegal seizure of a government by military, usually instigated by a small group of the existing state establishment to depose the established government and replace it with a new ruling body

    (9b) -Hierarchical and centralised: The structure of military is hierarchical and centralised putting a premium or rapid communication

    -Opposition: The military do not tolerate oppositions of any kind

    - Dictatorship: All military government are dictatorship.

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    (3a) A Parliamentary System is a system of government in which the ministers of the Executive Branch get their democratic legitimacy from a Legislature and are accountable to that body, such that the Executive and Legislative branches are intertwined. In this system of government, the head of state is distinct from the head of government


    (3b) -In presidential system the executive president is both head of state and government while in parliamentary government the Queen /president is the head of state while prime minister is head of government

    -In presidential system the peopple elect the executive president through popular ballot while in parliamentary the leader of the party that won the election is appointed as the3 prime minister

    -In presidential system the principle of seperation of powers is more pronounced while in parliamentary system the principle of seperation of powers is not well pronounced

    -In presidential system individual responsibility of ministers is applicable while in parliamentary system collective responsibilities of ministers is applicable.

    (4a) public opinon is an aggregate of the
    individual views, attitudes, and beliefs about a particular topic, expressed by a
    significant proportion of a community.

    (4b) -Personal interest Personal interest
    has a straightforward effect on public
    opinion. Individuals respond to a problem
    based on how the outcome will affect them
    -Schemas A more encompa$$ing way of
    looking at public opinion is through the
    concept of a schema, a term political
    scientists have borrowed from
    psychology. A schema is a set of beliefs that people use to examine a specific
    subject.
    -Effective leadership Politicians are often
    accused of following the polls too closely,
    altering their positions to reflect shifts in
    public opinion. Effective leaders, in contrast, help build a consensus on policies
    that they believe are in the best interest of
    the country.

    (4c) -Through The ma$$ media
    Newspapers, radio, television, and the
    Internet—including e-mail and blogs -Through the Interest groups Interest
    groups, nongovernmental organizations
    (NGOs), religious groups, and labour
    unions (trade unions) cultivate the
    formation and spread of public opinion on
    issues of concern to their constituencies. -Through the Opinion leaders Opinion
    leaders play a major role in defining
    popular issues and in influencing
    individual opinions regarding them.
    Political leaders in particular can turn a
    relatively unknown problem into a national issue if they decide to call attention to it in
    the media.


    (5)
    1.Supervisory presiding officer (SPO)
    2. Presiding officer (PO)
    3. Assistant Presiding Officer 1 (Apo) 4. Assistant Presiding Officer 111 (Apo)
    5. Assistant Presiding Officer 111 (Apo)
    Functions
    1.Supervisory presiding officer (SPO): He/
    she supervise the conduct of poll in a
    cluster of polling unit 2. Presiding officer (PO): Is in- charge of all
    activities at the polling unit on election Day
    including Accreditation, Voting, Sorting,
    Counting of votes as well as the
    Announcement of election result(s)
    3. Assistant Presiding Officer 1 (Apo): Verification and statistics/ Overseer, He/
    she a$$ ists with collection of materials
    from the SPO
    4.Assistant Presiding Officer 11 (Apo):
    Register-Check/Ballot paper issuance and
    Inking, Also Issue voter with duly endorsed accreditation tag
    5.Assistant Presiding Officer 111 (Apo):
    Queue Controller, Ensure Orderly queuing
    of voters.
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