Verified Waec GCE 2018 Civic Education Obj & Theory Answers

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Verified Waec GCE 2018 Civic Education Obj & Theory Answers



    ==========THEORY ANSWERS============

    Nationalism is the conscious movement of Africans to be free from external control. It is the conscious efforts and movement made by Black origin to fight and oppose all manners of colonialism and imperialism.
    It us the strong patriotic feelings for one's country.

    (i) Herbert Macaulay
    (ii) Dr Nnamdi azikwe
    (iii) Awolowo
    (iv) Ahmadu bello

    (I) They helped to develop political party system in Nigeria, example the formation of NNDP ( in 1923) and NCNC (in 1943)
    (ii) They stopped imperialism
    (iii) They fought for the liberation of the country from the colonial rule
    (iv) They helped Africans to be recognised in the colonial Government in Africa.

    (3a) Traffic regulation can be defined as the rules and regulations that guide the behaviours or actions of road users. This is in place in order to prevent accidents and enhance the free flow of traffic

    (3b)(i)Do not drink and drive: Road users are expected to avoid taking alcohol shortly before or while driving
    (ii)Vigilance: Motorists and pedestrians crossing roads should be vigilant in order to avoid accidents.
    (iii)Avoid hands free / earpiece: All road users are required to avoid all forms of hand free/ earpiece as this may not allow them to hear well and concentrate.
    (iv)Wearing of seat belt: Motorist are expected to wear the seat -belt whenever they are driving, passengers should also use the seat belt where they are provided
    (v)Noise pollution: All road users are expected to guide against noise pollution. Drivers of vehicles should not blow their horns excessively to disturb or distract others
    (vi)Obstruction parking: All road users should avoid packing on the road as this may lead to obstruction for other road users, thereby leading to heavy traffic.

    Cultism can be defined as an enclosed organized association devoted to the same cause. Members of this group always commit themselves to oath and allegiance which series as their strong bond.
    (i)academic weakness
    (ii)parental influence
    (iii)moral activities
    (iv)immoral activities
    (v)anger against society's
    (vi)threats by lectures

    6a) HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, which is our body’s natural defence against illness. The virus destroys a type of white blood cell in the immune system called a T-helper cell, and makes copies of itself inside these cells.

    (i) Unprotected Sex
    (ii) Transfusion of unscreened and infected blood
    (iii) Uses of unsterilized and piercing instruments.

    6c)1) Needles and syringes should not be shared.
    2)No sex before marriage
    3)Razor blades and other skin cutting and piercing instruments
    should not be shared.
    4)Blood transfusion can only be administered when such blood has
    been tested, screened and declared safe from HIV.
    5)Constant or periodic test by individual, married partners is a sure
    way of avoiding spread of AIDS.

    (i)Federal Government tires
    (ii)State Government tires
    (iii)Local Government tires

    (i)maintenance of law and order.
    (ii)protection of lives and properties.
    (iii)promote democracy and social justice.
    (iv)provision of social Welfare's services.
    (v)promotion of economic (vi)development.
    protection of human Right.


    (i) Generality , Equity and Certainty
    (ii) Guarantees fundamental rights and freedoms
    (iii) Serves as a check against the abuse of power


    1. Constraints on Government Powers:
    In a society governed by the rule of law, the
    government and its officers and agents are
    subject to and held accountable under the
    law. Modern societies have developed
    systems of checks and balances, both
    constitutional and institutional, to limit the
    reach of excessive government power, and
    to subject the government power, or ruler,
    to legal restraints.

    2. Absence of Corruption:
    The absence of corruption-conventionally
    defined as the use of public power for
    private gain is one of the hallmarks of
    society governed by the rule of law, as
    corruption is a manifestation of the extent to
    which government officials abuse their
    power or fulfill their obligations under the

    3. Fundamental Rights:
    Under the rule of law, fundamental rights
    are effectively guaranteed, ensuring that no
    one is deprived of them. A system of
    positive law that fails to respect core human
    rights established under international law is
    at best "rule by law".

    4. Equality before the law:
    The rule of law guarantees the equality and
    fair treatment of everybody before the law.

    5)a) Creating undercover organisations to infiltrate trafficking groups:
    5.1. By setting up more specialised crime prevention units against human trafficking worldwide, the specialised units can gather information about traffickers from sources including trafficked victims referred to the NRM, who can provide first hand information about the perpetrators and how they were trafficked so that they can identify the traffickers and attempt to infiltrate into the organisations responsible for the trafficking. By infiltrating the trafficking groups, it will be easier to arrest the perpetrators as well as a wider circle of traffickers worldwide. These specialised units can be created worldwide and information can be shared between countries through international agencies to help identify worldwide trafficking groups.

    b). Becoming an Informed Consumer: The government could release informative campaigns which encourage people to become more conscientious and informed consumers. They need to be informed on ‘slavery footprint’ and need to become more aware of how products, such as clothes, were made and how the products were distributed (e.g. who picked the tomatoes). The government, media and schools can be used to produce campaigns and information, encouraging people to look at the department of Labour's List of Goods produced by child labour or forced labour and stop purchasing the goods supplied through human trafficking and modern slavery

    c) Reducing Poverty:
    There are thousands of children who are in poverty and die due to hunger and unclean water. Poverty affects their future and as a result of this human trafficking can happen. The modern slavery/ human trafficking trade preys on children whose families desperately need an income or who have not yet joined adulthood.

    d) Education:
    Curriculum should include the ways that children and adults are trafficked (e.g about grooming), how they become trafficked victims and the signs of others who are victims. This can include case studies and also encouragement for students to get involved with charities etc that are working to reduce and avoid human trafficking. This should be in KS2 and KS3 lessons as it is a difficult topic to deal with but essential to know about from a young age.

    e) Stricter Laws -Against Perpetrators and Businesses:
    Policy reforms could be put in place to create stricter punishments and sanctions against the perpetrators such as longer prison sentences i.e increasing the sentence from 12-20 years to life imprisonment.


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