Verified Neco GCE 2018 Chemistry & Commerce Obj & Theory Answers

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Verified Neco GCE 2018 Chemistry & Commerce Obj & Theory Answers




    Commerce OBJ:
    1-10: AABAEEBCDA
    11-20: CEEDDBEDDD
    21-30: EBCBBACAED
    31-40: BBBCADBDDE
    41-50: CCDEADAAAE
    51-60: DCEAECCEBA

    the amount of money taken by a business in a particular period.

    *Excessive or insufficient inventory.*
    If the business is based on a product rather than a service, take careful stock of its inventory. First-time business buyers are often seduced by inventory, but it can be a trap. Excessive inventory may be obsolete or may soon become so; it also costs money to store and insure. Excess inventory can also mean there are a lot of dissatisfied customers who are experiencing lags between their orders and final delivery or are returning items they aren’t happy with.

    *The lowest level of inventory* the business can carry.
    Determine this, then have the seller agree to reduce stock to that level by the date you take over the company. Also add a clause to the purchase agreement specifying that you're buying only the inventory that's current and saleable.

    *Accounts receivable.*
    Uncollected receivables stunt a business’s growth and could require unanticipated bank loans. Look carefully at indicators such as accounts receivable turnover, credit policies, cash collection schedules and the aging of receivables.

    *Net income.*
    Use a series of net income ratios to gain a better look at a business’s bottom line. For instance, the ratio of gross profit to net sales can be used to determine whether the company’s profit margin is in line with that of similar businesses. Likewise, the ratio of net income to net worth, when considered together with projected increases in interest costs, total purchase price and similar factors, can show whether you would earn a reasonable return. Finally, the ratio of net income to total assets is a strong indicator of whether the company is getting a favorable rate of return on assets. Your accountant can help you assess all these ratios. As they do so, be sure to determine whether the profit figures have been disclosed before or after taxes and the amount of returns the current owner is getting from the business. Also assess how much of the expenses would stay the same, increase, or decrease under your management.

    *Working capital.*
    Working capital is defined as current assets less current liabilities. Without sufficient working capital, a business can’t stay afloat—so one key computation is the ratio of net sales to net working capital. This measures how efficiently the working capital is being used to achieve business objectives.

    *Sales activity.*
    Sales figures may appear rosier than they really are. When studying the rate of growth in sales and earnings, read between the lines to tell if the growth rate is due to increased sales volume or higher prices. Also examine the overall marketplace. If the market seems to be mature, sales may be static—and that might be why the seller's trying to unload the company.

    *Fixed assets.*
    If your analysis suggests the business has invested too much money in fixed assets, such as the plant property and equipment, make sure you know why. Unused equipment could indicate that demand is declining or that the business owner miscalculated manufacturing requirements.

    *Operating environment.*
    Take time to understand the business’s operating environment and corporate culture. If the business depends on overseas clients or suppliers, for example, examine the short- and long-term political environment of the countries involved. Look at the business in light of consumer or economic trends; for example, if you're considering a store that sells products based on a fad like Crocs, will that client base still be intact five or 10 years later? Or if the company relies on just a few major clients, can you be sure they'll stay with you after the deal is closed?

    1. Transport and Communication. Transportation carries goods form producers to traders and finally to consumers. It bridges the geographical distances. It makes for speed and efficiency in exchange. Transportation provides the wheels of commerce. It is because f transportation that a producer can sell his goods in different parts of the world. It crates ‘places utility’.
    Alongwith transport, communication is also an important service. Communication helps in exchange of information between producers, consumers and traders. The communication services like postal service, telephone service, fax, internet, e-mail, etc., facilitate trade to a great extent.
    2. Banking and Finance. Banks and financial institutions provide credit facility; loan etc. to provide finance for smooth flow of business activities. Banks help the businessmen to overcome the problem of funds. Alongwith provision of funds, the commercial bamks provide many others facilities such as collection and deposit of cherubs, issue of bank draft, discounting of bills of exchange, etc. Banks also provide the facility of overdraft, cash credit limit, arrangement and payment in foreign currency in case of foreign or external trade.
    3. Warehousing. It refers o the holding of goods until they are finally consumers. Goods have to be stored at every stage in the process of exchange. Warehousing performs a useful function by matching supply with demand. It helps to make available the seasonally produced goods throughout the year. Warehousing creates ‘time utility’.
    4. Insurance. There are a number of risks in any business activity. These can be covered with the help of insurance companies. Insurance companies undertake to make good the loss by receiving a small amount of premium in advance as consideration.
    5. Advertising. In order to find customers, the producer has to inform the prospective customers about the utility and features of his product. This can be done with the help of advertising. Advertisement spreads awareness among the consumers regarding new goods and their uses. Advertisement directly promotes the sale of goods. It is a very good technique of promotion and improves the knowledge of customers. It helps the traders to sell their goods and the consumes to get goods of their choices.


    *Life insurance*
    Life insurance is a contract between an insurance policy holder and an insurer or assurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money in exchange for a premium, upon the death of an insured person.

    In contract of assurance the sum assured is bound to be paid whether insured suffers a loss or not.

    It is used when risk is certain and is bound to happen.

    In assurance the compensation is paid whether the event happens or not.

    In contract of insurance the insured must suffer a damage or loss, to claim the compensation.

    It is used when risk is uncertain, it may or may not happen.

    In insurance the compensation is paid only on happening of an event.


    A department store is typically a large retail establishment that offers a wide variety of merchandise organized into separate departments. Merchandise featured in department stores is generally clothing for men, women and children; jewelry and accessories like handbags, belts and scarves; shoes; and cosmetics. Some department stores carry small appliances for the home, electronics, sports equipment, toys and furniture. Many department stores are part of a retail chain with stores in multiple locations.

    Chain stores are retail outlets in multiple locations that share a brand and central management. They usually feature standardized business methods. Some chain stores are branches owned by one company, while others are franchises owned individually. Some features common to chain stores include centralized marketing and purchasing, resulting in lowered cost to the consumer and higher profit for the store.

    A kiosk (from Turkish köşk, from
    Persian kūshk) is a small, separated
    garden pavilion open on some or all sides. Kiosks were common in Persia, the Indian subcontinent , and in the
    Ottoman Empire from the 13th century onward. Today, there are many kiosks in and around the Topkapı Palace in
    Istanbul , and they are still a relatively common sight in Balkan countries.
    The word is now applied to small booths offering goods and services and to freestanding computer terminals.

    Small businesses are privately owned
    corporations, partnerships , or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation. Businesses are defined as "small" in terms of being able to apply for government support and qualify for preferential tax policy varies depending on the country and industry. Small businesses range from fifteen employees under the Australian Fair Work Act 2009, fifty employees according to the definition used by the
    European Union, and fewer than five hundred employees to qualify for many U.S. Small Business Administration programs. While small businesses can also be classified according to other methods, such as annual revenues, shipments, sales, assets, or by annual gross or net revenue or net profits, the number of employees is one of the most widely used measures.





    Chemistry OBJ:
    1-10: DDCACEBCDC
    11-20: EDCEAABCBA
    21-30: EECACEDEAD
    31-40: CBEAECCEDD
    41-50: DDABEDBAEA
    51-60: CECEBACEEA

    Electrolytes are the components that conducts electricity in molten form or in solution e.g Nacl solution, CuSO
    Cu2+ SO42-
    Electrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a substance brought about by a direct current passing through either a solutions of or a Molten form.

    Elements that are electolytically reduced are sodium Na, Potassium, Calcium Ca.

    11R and 17S
    (i) Na and Cl ==> Sodium Chloride Nacl
    (ii) Covalent land

    (i) Bleaching Agents
    (ii) for making important chemicals such as Hcl

    (i) 11R ==> Sodium has low I.E
    (ii) Fe (iron) react with cold water to form Iron (iii) tetroxide with the release of hydrogen but slow of the iron not hot

    Cold water on sodium, hydroxide forms at first rate but explode with hot water

    When water is added to blue anhydrous copper (ii) chloride the colour changes from blue to pink

    Gay Lussac’s Law of combining volumes states that if gasses react they do so in volume which bears a simple ratios and to the volume of the product. If gaseous provided that the temperature and pressure remains constant

    V1 = 250cm3
    T1 = 250c
    T2 = ?
    V2 = 2v1
    = 25 + 273
    = 2 x 250cm3
    = 298k
    = 500cm3

    V1/T1 = V2/T2
    250/298 = 500/T2
    250 T2 = 500 x 298
    T2 = 500 x 278/250
    = 596k

    Atomicity of an element is the total number of atoms present in one molecule of an element or a compound

    - Monatomic has --> Helium, Neon
    - Triatomic Gas --> Ozone O3

    - it is used as antiseptic
    - it is in bleaching delicate materials such as Silk, wool, pulp etc

    - it is a colourless, odourless gas
    - it is neutral to moist litmus paper

    - to get the reduction of impurities
    - to avoid other constituents to stick to them

    CuCO3(s) D--> CuO + CO2
    1mole of CuCO3 produce 1 mole of CO2
    0.081 mole would give 0.081 moles of CO2
    No of mole = mass/molar mass
    = 10/123.5
    = 0.081 moles
    CuCO3 ==> 123.5
    No of mole of CO2 = Volume given/22.4
    0.081 = volume/22.4
    V = 22.4 x 0.081
    = 1.8144dm3

    Endothermic | Exothermic
    (1) heat is absorbed to the surroundings
    (2) The Enthalpy change is posture (+ve)
    (1) Heat is evolved to the surroundings
    (2) The enthalpy changes here is negative

    (i) Sodium hydroxide pellets in water is Exothermic
    (ii) Ammonium Chloride in water is Endothermic
    (iii) Con H2SO4 acid is Exothermic

    Saturated Fatty Acids | Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    - Their bonds to accepts any form of constituents are full
    - they still have more bond space so they are Unsaturated
    Fatty acid are work acids because they dissociate partially in water and the Hydrogen or Hydroxonium ions are not concentrated

    -Esters with low molecular weight are commonly used as fragrances and found in essential oils and pheromones.

    -Esters with characteristic odours are used in synthetic flavours, perfumes, and cosmetics

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