Verified Waec GCE 2018 Economics Obj & Theory Answers Is Out!!

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Verified Waec GCE 2018 Economics Obj & Theory Answers Is Out!!




    1a) Total Fixed cost of the Firm

    Processing Machine 2000
    Manager's Salary 1500
    Factory Rent 1200
    Electricity bills 800

    ii) Total variable cost of the Firm
    Wages of casual labour 2500
    Fuel 600
    Raw materials 1400
    iii) Average cost(AC)

    TC = TFC + TVC
    = $5500+$4500
    = $10,000
    Ac = $10000
    AC = $3.33

    1b) Total Profit for the period
    Print = Total Revenue - Total cost
    Total Revenue (TR) = Price x Quantity
    = $600 X 3000
    Profit = $18,000 $10,000

    1c) Tax Paid by the Firm
    Tax Paid = Tax rate x taxable Profit
    = 10/100 x $8000
    = $800

    1d) Fixed cost is defined as the cost
    incurred by a firm which does not
    Change or vary with the level of
    activity. Examples are Salary Rent
    electricity. Whereas Variable cost
    are the cost incurred by a Firm
    which Vary or Change with the level
    of activity. Examples are fuel,

    Section (B) Answer 3 Only
    i)National income: is an uncertain term which is used interchangeably with national dividend, national output and national expenditure. On this basis, national income has been defined in a number of ways
    ii)Personal Income: personal income refers to an individual's total earnings from wages, investment enterprises, and other ventures. It is the sum of all the incomes received by all the individuals or household during a given period.
    iii)Disposable Income: is total personal income minus personal current taxes. In national accounts definitions, personal income minus personal current taxes equals disposable personal income
    iv)Real Income: refers to the income of an individual or group after taking into consideration the effects of inflation on purchasing power. For example, if you receive a 2% salary increase over the previous year and inflation for the year is 1%, then your real income only increases by 1%.
    i)Inventory Adjustments:
    Inventory adjustments i.e., changes in the stock of capital goods or final products are also to be taken into account while computing national income
    ii)Problem of Imputed Values:
    There are certain goods and services which do not appear in or cannot be brought to the market. In such cases we have to impute values to them.
    iii)Excluded Market Transactions: Many transactions are such that represent merely the transfer of wealth (or claims to wealth) or the exchange of commodities produced in some previous accounting period.
    iv)Problems of Double Counting: Double counting implies the possibility of a commodity like raw material or labour being included in national income more than once,

    Trade by barter can be defined as the exchange of goods for goods and services for services. 
    i) Problem of double coincidence: This is a situation whereby a producer looks for another producer who has what he wants and want what he has. 
    ii) Problem of storage: This problem occur because most of goods produced are perishable. 
    i)Commodity Money: Is a commodity that is generally acceptable as a medium of exchange. Such a commodity has a money value as well as an intrinsic value of its own.
    ii) Token money: This is a form of money with a face value which is greater than the value of the metal content.
    iii) Bank deposits: The bank deposit is the process whereby an individual deposits his money in the bank and then uses cheques as a means of payment.

    Primary production involves the extractive industry where the occupation of people is directed to the process of extracting raw materials from the soil or area
    Primary production:-
    Example:-Mining and Fishing
    Secondary production:-
    Example:-Manufacturing industries and construction industries
    Tertiary production:-
    Example:-Insurance and Banking
    i) Revenue: The primary industries like timber industry, cocoa industry, fishing industry, mining industry etc pay monies to the government in the form of taxes or levies. These monies are called revenues and they are used for developmental projects in the country.
    ii) Foreign exchange: Most of the the primary industries in such as timber industry, cocoa industry, mining industry etc., do not process or add value to their raw materials. Their raw materials are exported to other countries and this earns the country foreign exchange.
    iii) Employment: The primary industries together employ over 65% of the working population in a country. These various industries serve as employment and help people to earn income to improve their lives.
    Majority of the people at the rural areas are farmers and fishermen.
    iv) Raw materials: Some of the industries process or add value to the raw materials from the primary industries.
    For example, cocoa beans obtained from the Cocoa industries are processed by some companies such as Cocoa Processing Company into chocolates etc.

    Unemployment can be defined as an economic situation in which able body men and women who are willing and able to work can not secure any job in the country. 
    i) Technological employment: This is caused as a result of company changes its technical ways of production which result in laying off of worker who cannot cope with the new method of production. 
    ii) Cyclical Unemployment: This is caused as a result I down-swing in trade cycle ie a fall in a demand for a country's product. 
    i) Industrialization: Government should many industries that can employ many worker. 
    ii) Population control - Population should be controlled to obtain optimum level, so as to match the human population with available resources. 
    iii) Proper Development plan: This should be put in places to cater for people who are unemployed. 
    iv) Re-designing Educational system : The educational system should be redesigned to graduate people that are able to create employment.


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