Waec May/June 2022 Government Answers

Waec May/June 2022 Government Answers
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    ""GOVERNMENT EXAM""
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    Government+Obj!

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    QUESTION 1

    1. Bribery and corruption: some civil servants divert public fund to their personal pockets. Property meant for the public service are turned to theirs. In fact some will not perform their routine duties effectively until they are sufficiently bribe. This may lack citizens confidence from the government.

    2. Poor condition of service: That is, salaries of the civil servants are not attractive. Promotion are also slow. Citizens will absolutely lost trust in the government.


    3. Another reason that will make citizens to lust trust in any government if the political power that is in government failed to fulfilling their manifesto.

    4. Tribalism, favouritism and nepotism: Some key appointments into top position and promotion in any government department are not base on merits but nepotism and tribalism preferential treatment to friends, relatives etc.

    5. Finally, incompetent of the presidential candidate and his executives. That is, if the three arm's of government are not perverting justice according to the constitution. Citizens will lose confidence in the government
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    (2)
    (i) Autonomous: The electoral body should be made autonomous rather than appendages of the executive arm government

    (ii) Non-inference: There should be no political interference in the affairs of the commission




    (iii) Appointment: The officials of the commission should not be appointed by the executive government

    (iv) Integrity: Those to be appointed into the commission must be people of proven integrity and transparent honesty

    (v) Legal backing: The commission should be adequately backed up with the laws to enable it command respect and obedience from political parties and candidates

    OR


    2) 1. Every adult citizen has the right to vote in elections, on a non-discriminatory basis.

    (2) Every adult citizen has the right to access to an effective, impartial and non-discriminatory procedure for the registration of voters.

    (3) No eligible citizen shall be denied the right to vote or disqualified from registration as a voter, otherwise than in accordance with objectively verifiable criteria prescribed by law, and provided that such measures are consistent with the State's obligations under international law.

    (4) Every individual who is denied the right to vote or to be registered as a voter shall be entitled to appeal to a jurisdiction competent to review such decisions and to correct errors promptly and effectively.

    (5) Every voter has the right to equal and effective access to a polling station in order to exercise his or her right to vote.

    (6) Every voter is entitled to exercise his or her right equally with others and to have his or her vote accorded equivalent weight to that of others.

    (7) The right to vote in secret is absolute and shall not be restricted in any manner whatsoever.
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    *(NUMBER 3)*

    3 (i) Compromises the Rule of Law:
    With the interfered independence of the judiciary also comes the compromise of the rule of law. Many people who would otherwise not have their way within the normal channels will always be too quick to rush to the judiciary to beat the odds. If left unchecked, this might compromise the rule of law permanently.

    (ii) Opens the Floodgates for Mob Justice:
    This is simply a situation whereby the public law and order is not maintained as per the laid rules and regulations but on what the public wishes for at any given time. This is a bad precedent that should never be set, let alone followed.

    (iii) Likely to create confusion:
    If the mandates issued out by the judiciary contradict or are in variance with the ones passed by the legislature, the result might be heavy confusion.

    (iv) Highly prone to biases:
    When all is said and done under this circumstance, the ruling issued out by the judiciary is often largely determined by the strength of the lobbyists, not what is truly good for the public. Thus, it is highly likely to be prone to biases and especially in favor of those with the necessary clout. This is also not to mention the possibilities of corruption and bribery taking root.

    (v) Interferes with the Independence of the Legislature:
    Judiciaries ought to be completely independent and uncompromised. That is why, for a large part, they have to base their rulings and convictions purely based on the evidence tabled before them and the laws passed.

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    (4)(i) A state is a territorial association of people with defined boundaries, while Government is an administrative institution within a state.

    (ii) A state is more inclusive and therefore greater than government i.e. it embraces all the people and associations within a given area while Government is not as inclusive as the state.

    (iii) A state is a continuing entity. It is therefore permanent. It can hardly be overthrown or changed. while Government is a temporary institution. It only lasts over a period of time. It can be overthrown

    (iv) A state depends on government in carrying out its activities. while Government is the machinery by which the functions of a state are performed.

    (v) A state has its elements, as population, territory, government and sovereignty. Government has its main organs as the legislature, executive and judiciary.
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    WAEC Government SECTION B


    (6)
    - Settlement of disputes:
    The pre-colonial traditional rulers settled disputes. Disputes are normal in every society and pre-colonial societies in West Africa were no exception. Any dispute that arose was settled by the chiefs. Culprits were punished and the innocent were set free. This was one of the ways chiefs controlled their subjects.

    - Law enforcement:
    There were law enforcement institutions in place to ensure law enforcement. Some of the enforcement institutions were the Age grades, masquerades, and militant groups like the Asafo companies among the Akans. These enforcement institutions were used in controlling the subjects.

    - Use of ancestral spirits:
    The traditional belief that when the living misbehaved, the dead who lived in the after world could punish them, was another ingenious way of controlling the people. This belief in the underworld was common in pre-colonial times and nobody wanted to be on the wrong side of the gods hence they obeyed the laws thus helping the chiefs maintain control.

    - Customs or taboos and conventions:
    There were things that the traditional society frowned upon and the society never compromised on them. These were aspects of their customs, taboos, and conventions. Any infraction of the customs, taboos or conventions attracted a certain form of fine or sanctions. This way, the chiefs were able to control their subjects.

    - Oath taking:
    In pre-colonial times, one of the ways of ascertaining the truth was the taking of an oath, to tell the truth. There were serious repercussions for anybody who took the oath and still went ahead to tell a lie. The oath was usually taken before the gods of the land represented by the Chief Priests. Sub-chiefs were also made to swear oaths to remain loyal to the Paramount Chief. All these helped to keep them in line.
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    (8) - Historical experience:
    The major reason for the adoption of federal system of government in Nigeria is borne out of the historical experience that brought all the ethical groups together under one Nigeria. It has severally been emphasized by both the Northern and Western politicians that God did not create Nigeria but the British. The British in their quest for economic wealth and geo-political edges over other Europeans in Africa made Nigeria the largest British colony in Africa. The Emergence of Nigeria as a political entity under colonial rule was not an easy affair. It came about following the necessity for administrative convenience and managerial expenses. Moreover, it is important to note that most of the ethnic groups in Nigeria had strong political inter-group relationship before colonial rule. The history of Ijaw, Edo, Igala, Yoruba, Igbo, Nupe and Hausa Kingdoms are enriched with social-political relationships that existed before the emergence of the white man. Political institutions, Kinship ties, Origin of towns and their cultural antecedents are enriched with similar history. All these strengthen political bonds and gave Rice to unity in diversity.

    - Unity of the country:
    This is also one of the reasons for federal system of government in Nigeria. Federalism was basically introduced to bring about peace and unity in the different regions of the country. In many countries of the world, federalism has emerged as a means of accommodating the growing desire of people to preserve or revive the intimacy of small societies and the growing necessity for larger combinations to mobilize the utilization of common resources. The unity here is brought about by the desire of the component units of the federation to form union in respect of some matters. Mere desire to unite is not enough but there must be the desire to remain separate in respect to other matters. If the desire to remain separate does not exist, the the association will not be federal but unitary with some delegation of powers to local government.

    - Political culture of Nigeria:
    Another important factor that necessitated federalism in Nigeria was the political culture of the country. Evidently, Nigeria’s political culture was federalism friendly and that gave rise to easy adoption of federalism. As I have already explained, Nigeria is an amalgamation of three different regions with beliefs and customs. Federalism was the only solution to ensure peace and unity amongst the leaders and the citizens and that was why federalism was adopted into the Nigerian political system. In the same way, the political culture of the United States is civic, republican and participatory. It represents a synthetic between two perspectiveneess; one is that politics of the United States should produce the good commonwealth and the other is that the principal task of politics is to create an open political market.

    - Ethnic, Religious and Geographical Factor:
    No doubt, the Ethnic, Religious and Geographical nature of Nigeria also contributed to the reason why federalism was adopted. This is so because where federal principles apply, the various ethnic groups that cannot or don’t form majority to produce large part may have the opportunity of governing themselves within their federating unit controlled by them. Common national, racial, religious, cultural linguistic or social ties have often contributed to the unification of political unit. In some areas where major communal or other social antagonism cuts across territorial boundaries, ranging through all the federating units, communities or classes have been driven to seek to protect or strengthen their position by inter-territorial union. The fear of ethnic groups overlapping regional boundaries and the loyalties of castes cutting of some extent across provincial political boundaries also encourage some groups to support wider federal unions. There is no doubt that geographical factored are one of the influential reasons for federalism in Nigeria. The effectiveness of linking communications has been a vital factor in geographical unit.

    - Minority Marginalization:
    Another cogent reason for federalism in Nigeria is the fear of marginalization. In other not to control only some parts of the big country, Nigeria, the colonial masters thought it wise to divide the country into different component units that will be represented in the government. This helped to solve the problem of marginalization in the leadership. The fear of marginalization by the minority in a unitary system of government has, to a great extent, influenced the majority state support for federating states. In a Unitary system, the minority states cannot govern the entire region which is controlled by majority. Thus, federalism seemed to be the only option left for Nigeria because it allows for popular participation in government. Here, both the majority and minority are represented in the government.
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    (9a) E-government is the use of technological communications devices, such as computers and the Internet, to provide public services to citizens and other persons in a country or region.

    (9b)
    - Inclusive Governance: E-governance helps in building trust between governments and citizens, an essential factor in good governance by using internet-based strategies to involve citizens in the policy process, illustrating government transparency and accountability.

    - Easy and Quick Implementation: With e-government, paperwork has been made so simple and intuitive. This facilitates sharing of information and ideas between all government agencies and department to build one mega data base. Getting the government decisions and policies across to the citizens is easy as well, since e-government gives every citizen access to information.

    - High Operational Efficiency: What matters a lot to citizens is the efficiency of the services being provided. The effectiveness of government is measured by the quality of its interactions with citizens. The processing of paperwork in a traditional government system is a difficult task which consumes a lot of resources; time spent on paperwork does not create much value for citizens.

    - High Level of Trust on Government: For any government to survive or maintain or keep control of power, such government must win the trust of the majority of the citizens. E-government can always afford that for any government that embraces it.

    - Reduces Costs of Running a Government: E-government is very cost effective. Let’s take for example that government wants to seek a public opinion on an issue, with e-government system it can take a survey and the opinion very fast at extremely low cost. That also applies when government would want to capture some data






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